The Petroleum and Oil Industry
The petroleum industry refines crude petroleum and processes natural gas into a multitude of products. It is also involved in the distribution and marketing of petroleum-derived products. Processes include: oil- and gas-field operations, gas plant processing operations, refining and refinery operations, and refining technologies. Due to these activities, pollutants can be produced in the form of toxic emissions and hazardous waste that are released into the environment. Many environmental factors depend largely on the conditions and operations of the facilities themselves. Pollution caused by this industry relies on design and operating practices; frequency of maintenance and inspection; type, age, and quality of equipment; operating conditions; treatment and processing equipments; and applicable environmental and conservation regulations. Additionally, various accident and equipment failures can further contaminate the environment; possibilities include well blowouts, pipeline breaks, tanker accidents, and tank explosions.
Historically the industry sector has not acted responsibly towards environmental management. Later sections document poor practices that have stemmed from both unintentional as well as intentional actions. As a result, such actions have placed the public at risk from both chronic and acute exposures to various toxic chemicals, including significant amounts of carcinogens like benzene.
STORAGE TANKS :
Industrial storage tanks are containers used for storage of gas, oil, water, and petrochemical products, employed for industrial uses. Industrial storage tanks come in different sizes and shapes.
They can be underground, horizontal, and vertical, and be made from concrete, stone, fiberglass, steel or plastic.
Industrial storage tanks can be categorized into several types based on the substance they hold and some other factors.
TYPES OF STORAGE TANKS:
1. Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks
Industrial fuel storage tanks, known as petroleum tanks also, can store various fluids. In general, they are used for storing non-organic and organic liquids. They can also hold vapor as well as different flammable fluids. Fuel storage tanks are manufactured in various designs and sizes. They are designed to store a variety of fuels, vapor, and industrial liquids.
Types of Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks
There are two main types of fuel storage tanks – Aboveground tanks and Underground tanks.
Aboveground Fuel Tanks
Aboveground fuel tanks (AST) are quite popular because of their lower long-term maintenance and upfront costs. These tanks are more cost-effective to install compared to underground tanks since you don’t need to spend for backfilling, deep excavation, and pavement of more involved piping.
Aboveground fuel tanks offer greater ease of maintenance compared to the below ground tanks. You can check them easily for leaks and access for repairs. This is the reason aboveground fuel storage tanks are preferred for storing fuels and chemicals.
Underground Storage Tanks
In Underground storage tank (UST), at least 10% of the tank’s stored volume is buried underground. Such tanks that are used for storing hazardous materials or fuels are regulated, and must have registration with the EPA.
These tanks are suitable for people wanting to maximize the space and/or value of their property. Underground storage tanks can be put beneath lawns and driveways, where they are not visible. Arguably, these types of tanks are safer as the chance of explosion is very little. However, the chance of leaks as well as that of generating pollution is increased in case of these tanks as they cannot be inspected often.
Advantages of Using Fuel Storage Tanks
If your business requires safe storage of fuel and other inflammable liquids, then it’s important to use an industrial fuel storage tank. Industrial fuel storage tanks are standards certified containers which provide safe storage of chemicals, solvents, oil, petrol, diesel, and other hazardous and flammable liquids. Fuel storage tanks restrict evaporative emissions as well as prevent any leakage of the substance contained in it.
These storage tanks are manufactured and designed for meeting industry standards, which makes them an efficient and reliable option for addressing your storage needs of hazardous substances. Using industrial fuel storage tanks offers several advantages, which are listed below:
(i) Cost Efficient
Using fuel storage tank is cost efficient since your staff need not leave the business facility for getting equipment or vehicles refueled. This saves both money and time that’s otherwise spent to refuel off your business premises. These tanks have a storage capacity lying between 1,000 and 110,000 liters, allowing you to store petrol and fuel according to the amount required on a weekly or daily basis.
There are various types of fuel storage tanks you can choose from. The chief types are – above ground fuel storage tanks and underground fuel storage tanks. These types have already been discussed above.
Another type of industrial fuel storage tank is – self bunded tank. This type of tank is employed widely because of its durability. Having double steel walls, the self bunded storage tank prevents spillage of the substance contained in it. The capacity of storage of the self bunded tanks and above ground tanks usually lay between 1,000 and 150,000 liters.
If your storage requirements are small, you may choose the minor storage wraptank. This type of fuel storage tank has a storage capacity between 1,000 and 1,450 liters. Similar to self bunded tank, minor storage wraptank has no need for any complex bunding requirements as well as provides maximum versatility and effectiveness.
An industrial fuel storage tank has the ability to hold a variety of inflammable liquids. If your storage needs are very specific, inform your manufacturer about them since they may customize or adjust tank specifications and models so as to fulfill your special requirements. Moreover, industrial fuel storage tanks are installed easily. Some of the models are portable too to allow easy relocation when necessary.
2. Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks
Industrial chemical storage tanks are employed for storing fertilizers, propane, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel), crude oil, and other chemicals. Industrial chemical storage tanks are available in various shapes and sizes. These storage tanks are used for mixing, processing, static storage, and transport of finished chemical products as well as raw materials.
Types of Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks
There are three chief types of industrial chemical storage tanks available –
• Stainless steel tanks
• Polyethylene tanks,
• Fiberglass (FRP) tanks
Stainless steel storage tanks are effective and durable; however, they are not suitable for many acids as well as are the most expensive option.